This Part provides sources which address these ancillary areas. Equipment includes weapons and vehicles used by RAR units. Researchers are encourage to seek additional coverage contained in many other Parts of this Bibliography. Official Army training pamphlets are not included in this Part.



4 RAR Award Recipients

4 RAR Association

List of all members of 4 RAR and 4 RAR/NZ (ANZAC) to be decorated. Accessible at


Anniversary of National Service 1951-1972 Medal

Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Australian Government, ongoing

Many RAR members have been awarded this medal. More than 300,000 Australians served in two post-war national service schemes that played an important role in the country’s defence. In the 21-year period 187 national servicemen died in active service and 1,500 were wounded. Most of these were RAR members. See


Applied Marksmanship Practice

HQ Training Command (Army), Sydney, 1985

U-Matic high band videotape, colour, and sound; 14 mins. Since digitised.

Footage shot by the Army Audio Visual Unit commanded by MAJ Dennis Coffey.

A narrative and training job aid produced for units to use to better prepare soldiers of all Corps and ranks when attempting to qualify for the Army Marksman badge (same was used by RAN and RAAF for their equivalents). Widely used by all RAR units, and features RAR troops in the footage; produced by (then) Major Russell Linwood, RAR.


Army Combat Badge

Australian Army

The purpose of the Army Combat Badge (ACB) is to recognise the unique service of a member operating with an arms corps unit within a warlike area of operations, including RAR members. Official details are available at


Army Headquarters – Ceremonial Manual Volume 2

Defence Publishing Services, Canberra, 1999

DPS: 32912/99

1st Edition.

Army’s prime official resource for embellishments.


Army Remembrance Pin

Australian Army

Official details of the Army Remembrance Pin are available to RAR and other veterans who have died while in service, both domestically and on operations, since 3 September 1945 are available at


ASHCROFT, Michael – George Cross heroes: incredible true stories of bravery beyond the battlefield

Headline Publishing Group, London, 2010

ISBN: 9780755360840

Illustrated; index; 456 pages.

George Cross awards are grouped by decades commencing in 1940 through to 2010. Two entries pertain to RAR members: from Korea, Private Horace Madden of 3 RAR and from Vietnam, Sergeant Murray Hudson (NZ) whoserve with 2 RAR/ANZAC V5 company.


ASHCROFT, Michael – Victoria Cross heroes

Headline publishing Group, London, 2007

ISBN10: 0755316339

ISBN13: 9780755316335

Illustrated, index; 432 pages.

British author heads up a Trust Fund that owns 10% of all VCs ever awarded. Includes all Australian winners up to date of publication.


Australian Army – Past AASAM Results

Annual small arms competition for the entire ADF and international teams accommodated, involving RAR staff and competitors since its inception. First conducted in 1984, and annually ever since. AASAM includes many trophies, including the RARA Association Trophy, others donated by RAR battalions (1 and 3), and all three brigades in the late ninetees (1,3 and 6). Incomplete results (only back to 2009) are at . Includes all records of King and Queens’s Medal and now Champion Shot of the Army.


Australian Army – Top Twenty Badge Winners since 1988

Conducted at AASAM, the Army’s Top Twenty winners annually receive a prized skill at arms badge for Service uniform wear. See for a list of all winners, the majority of whom are RAR members.


Australian Army Skill at Arms Meeting (AASAM 85)

TRAM Broadcasting, Sydney, 1985

U-Matic high band videotape, colour and sound; 14 mins. Since digitised.

Footage shot by the Army Audio Visual Unit commanded by MAJ Dennis Coffey.

A narrative and training job aid produced for units to prepare for competition in the Australian Army Skill at Arms Meeting (AASAM) military weapon competition that started in 1984 and was still conducted in 2021 as the premier small arms shooting competition for the ADF and internationally. Shows RAR troops in the scenes; produced by (then) Major Russell Linwood, RAR. AASAM was chaired almost entirely by RAR officer LTCOL Rex Wigney (Retd).


Australian Government – Order of Australia

Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, ongoing

Many RAR members have been awarded one or more of the medals in this Order, in both civilian and military divisions. See


Australian Operational Service Medal


This site provides a general coverage of the AOSM which largely replaces the AASM. Large number os RAR individuals hold one or more of this new medal. See


Australian Operational Service Medal – Special Operations

Contact, Sydney, 2019

An announcement was made that wef 1 November 2019, a new and special medal that recognises ‘black’ operations was to be made available to replace the ASM (Spec Ops). Because of the clandestine nature of many of the qualifying operations, it is being specially administered. Ex- or future- RAR members will be included in this new award regime as the transit through the special operations units. Announcement is at


Australian winners of King’s/Queen’s Medal

Australian Army

The Kings’/Queen’s Medal and more recently the Champion Shot Medal (Army) has been awarded as the ultimate recognition of shooting. Several have been RAR members. Data on all recipients is accessible at


Australian War Memorial – Military Honours and Awards to Australians

See all such awards made to Australians for military service at  Includes RAR members.


Battle and theatre honours of the Australian Army


Includes data on all of the battle honours awarded to the RAR and its member battalions. Accessible at


BRASCH, Vicolas – For valour: Victoria Cross heroes

Black dog books, Newtown NSW, 2013

ISBN: 9781742032313

Illustrated, glossary, index; 32 pages.

RAR VC recipients in this generalist publication are Payne, Wheatley and Simpson from the Vietnam war, and Roberts-Smith, Keighran and Donaldson for Afghanistan. All had served in the RAR prior to the unit in which they were awarded the VC, with Daniel Keighran of 6 RAR becoming the first to receive the VC in an RAR battle action.


BAKER, J.A. (Shorty) – Honours and Awards presented to Members

Serving with 2nd Battalion The Royal Australian Regiment 1945-1995

2nd Battalion The Royal Australian Regiment Association Inc, Townsville, 1997

ISBN: 0646316656

Index; 47 pages.

See the title.


BIEDERMANN, Narelle – Modern Military Heroes: Untold stories of course and gallantry

Random House Australian, Sydney, 2006

ISBN: 978 74051 372 2

Bibliography; 226 pages.

Includes a range of heroic events in both military training and operational environments. RAR members are amongst the individuals whose action attracted recognition.


BLACKWELL, Philip – Australian Army Unit Colour Patches 1987-2008

Australian Military History Publications, Loftus, VIC, 2008

ISBN: 0957828004 (9780957828001)

Index; 98 pages.

The colour patch was born of the chaos of World War I and quickly

acquired a life of its own as a rallying point, a ready identifier of a soldier’s

unit. This book covers such patches from pre-federation days to 2008.


BLACKWELL, Phillip – Australian Army Unit Colour Patches 1987-present

Picwell Press, Newport VIC, 2000

ISBN: 0 9578280 0 4

A4 size, coloured photos of colour patches; 68 pages.

An updated reference of colour patches as at the turn of the 21st century. Includes RAR patches.


Centenary Medal

Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Australian Government ongoing

Some RAR members have been awarded this commemorative medal for either/both service with the RAR and other notable service. See


COLMAN, Mike – Payne VC: The story of Australia’s most decorated soldier of the Vietnam War

ABC Books, Sydney, 2009

ISBN-10: ‎ 0733324886

ISBN-13: ‎ 978-0733324888

Illustrated, index; 453 pages.

Foreword by General Peter Cosgrove. Warrant Officer Class 2 Keith Payne (RAR) won the Victoria Cross for an action of May 1969, when as a member of the Australian Army Training Team in Vietnam, he was commanding the 212th Company of the 1st Mobile Strike Force Battalion near Ben Het.


Completed Reviews (honours and awards)

Australian Government (Defence Honours and Awards Appeals Tribunal)

Many awards are appealed for by ADF members including RAR members. DHAAT maintain a list of all completed inquiries. These are accessed at


COSSUM, JK – Australian Army Badges: A Collector’s Reference Guide Part 2 1930-1942

Ye old curiosity shop, Haberfield NSW, 1982

ISBN: 9780949530011

Highly illustrated, index; 35 pages.

Collectors guide to cloth badges Included here to avoid confusion with later books that cover RAR members.


COSSUM, J. K. – Australian Army Badges: A Collector’s Reference Guide Part 3 1948-1985

Ye Olde Curiosity Shoppe, Holbrook NSW, 1985

ISBN: 0949530050 (1985)

56 pages.

Depicts badges both metal and cloth including those worn by the RAR. First editions.


COSSUM, J. K. – Australian Army Badges: A Collector’s Reference Guide Part 3 1948-1985

Ye Olde Curiosity Shoppe, Holbrook NSW, 1985

ISBN: 0949530131 (new edition 1994)

56 pages.

Second Edition which updates the depiction of badges both metal and cloth including those worn by the RAR.


COSSUM, J.K. – Australian Army Badges: Cloth Insignia of the Army in

Australia, 1860-1993

J.K. Cossum, Sandy Bay Australia, 1997

ISBN: 0949953014X

124 pages.

Cloth insignia worn in Australia from the first Colonial volunteers of the 1860s

to the present day Australian Army; includes some unofficial unit badges.


COSSUM, JK – Australian Army Badges – The Rising Sun Badge

Self-published, Sunbury VIC, 1986

ISBN: 094920207X, 9780949202079


Illustrated; 40 pages.

History of the badge worn by all members of the Australian Army incl RAR Troops during recruit training, and later.



Deaths as a result of service with Australian units

Australian War Memorial

Statistics of all Australian war dead, including every RAR member. Embedded in this site is the Roll of Honour search function. Accessible at


Defence Honours and Awards: List of awards (A – Z)

Lists all medals awards made by the Australian Government to naval and military personnel (and in some cases) to their relatives. RAR personnel with awards of medals will find this a good start point to further detail on such awards.



Distinguished Service Decorations

Australian Government & The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia, since 1991

The Distinguished Service Decorations and Meritorious Unit Citation were approved by Her Majesty The Queen on 15 January 1991 and replaced a number of Imperial decorations. They were instituted for the purpose of recognising service in warlike operations and are awarded primarily to members of the Australian Defence Force. RAR members and units/sub-units have been awarded one or more awards in this series. See


Eligibility Criteria for Australian Service medal clasps issued to date

Department of Defence

Defence Honours and Awards Manual, Volume 1

Annex B to Chapter 19 of this online resource lists the criteria for the award of the ASM, also showing several that were later upgraded to the AASM. These data are likely to change as further upgrades are sought. Very large numbers of RAR and ex- RAR members are affected by this data. Accessible at


FERGUSON, Ian – Aussie War Heroes: They Shall Not Grow Old

Brolga Publishing, Ringwood VIC, 2012 (other publishers including Penguin)

ISBN: 1922036528, 9781922036520

No index or references; 280 pages.

Photographs, plates, No index, bibliographical references 266 pages.

Among others, this work covers some RAR award winners from Korea to Afghanistan who are recognised war heroes because of receipt of a bravery award. Chapters cover conflicts, not individuals, who feature in the chapter which deals with the war in which they were decorated. Does not cover anywhere near all decorated RAR members; a general history.


FESTBERG, Alfred N – Australian army guidons and colours

Allara Publishing, Melbourne, 1972

ISBN: 0858870088

Photographs, sketches, index; 142 pages.

Limited text, includes RAR colours.


FESTBERG, Alfred N – Australian army insignia 1903-1966

Military Historical Society of Australia (VIC branch), Melbourne, 1967


Photographs, sketches, index; 140 pages.

Limited text, mainly images of insignia including those worn by RAR personnel.


FESTBERG, Alfred N – The Lineage of the Australian Army

Allara Publishing, Melbourne, 1972

ISBN: 085887024X

118 pages.

Provides the lineage history of the battalions of the RAR up to 1972.


FOX, Karen – Honouring a nation: a history of Australia’s honours system

ANU Press, Canberra, 2022

ISBN (print): 9781760465001

ISBN (online): 9781760465018

References (works cited), charts; 296 pages.

A detailed history of the imperial and national honours in Australia including the transformation from the imperial unity function to a national institution. RAR recipients are among the many honoured. Accessible online at or


GILLETT, Ross (Editor) – Australia’s Armed Forces

(Contributors – ALSOP Brian, GILLETT Ross,


Nautical Press & Publications, Australia, 1981

ISBN: 0949756016

332 pages.

Contains detailed information on and photographs of the arms,

equipment of the Corps and Regiments in existence in the 1970s

and 1980s.


GILLETT, Ross (Editor) – Australia’s Armed Forces of the Eighties

Child & Henry, Australia, 1986

ISBN: 0867770813 0867770813 / 9780867770810

158 pages, index, bibliography

Contains detailed information and photographs on the arms, equipment and Corps and Regiments in service in the 1970s and 1980s. Revised and updated edition.


GREBERT, Rick – The Significance of Ribbon Colours on Medals

worn since 1815 by Australians

Landers Publishing, Dural NSW, 2007

ISBN: 1876713186

Index, bibliography,136 pages.

A useful explanation on what we always wanted to know but were

never game to ask about the purpose and value of service medal ribbons.


GREBERT, Rick – The Australia Army Slouch Hat and Rising Sun Badge

The New South Wales Military History Society Inc, Mosman, 2002

ISBN: 0909458235

Index, bibliography; 140 pages.

Although the RAR is not mentioned it is after all the history of the primary headgear worn by the RAR.


HORTON R P – Campaign and operational medals awarded to the Australian Defence Force

Department of Defence, Canberra, 1999

ISBN: 0642295166

Colour photograph and illustrations; 32 pages.

A commercial general publication of medallic awards made to Australian forces up to the time of publication.


Infantry Combat Badge

 Australian Army

Official details of the Infantry Combat Badge available to RAR and other Infantry veterans of warlike service are available at


Inquiry into the refusal to issue entitlements to, withholding and forfeiture of Defence honours and awards

Australian Government (Defence Honours & Awards Appeals Tribunal), Canberra, 2015

This DHAAT report of 141 pages examines this vexed matter, almost all awards within which were/are available to RAR members, some of whom have been involved. Report accessible at


JOHNSON, Clive –Medals Decorations & Awards to Australians 1815 to 2007

Remmiks Publications, Banksmeadow NSW, 2008

ISBN: 9780975224571

Index; 359 pages.

Reference book with hard cover; contains over 400 pages in full colour.

This book is essential for historians, military research and medal collectors.


JOHNSON, Clive – Australians Awarded: a Comprehensive Reference for Military and Civilian Awards, Decorations and Medals to Australians Since 1772

Remmiks Publications, Banksmeadow NSW, 2014

ISBN: 978-0-9873386-3-1

Index, profusely illustrated; 756 pages.

Second Edition, updating and expanding the book above. Lists and places values on awards made by British, colonial, Australian federal and state authorities to Australian citizens. Includes descriptions, criteria for award, numbers awarded and valuable other support data. 1772 is not a typing error. Many RAR recipients.


Keith Payne, VC, AM – medals and VC citation


Online list of all 23 different medals awarded to Keith Payne, plus an enlargeable photograph. Accompanied by the VC citation for action in Vietnam in 1069. Accessible at


Kevin Wheatley


General coverage of the military career of WO 2 Kevin ‘Dasher’ Wheatley, VC who was killed in action in Vietnam. Having also served in the Malayan Emergency, Wheatley served with 1, 2 and 3 RAR before his final posting to the AATTV. See


KILSBY, Andrew – The rifleman – a history of the National Rifle Association of Australia 1888-1988

Self-published for the NRAA, Carina QLD, 2013

ISBN: 9780646904658

Illustrated, bibliographical references; 362 pages.

A history of the NRAA including reference to a range of RAR individuals. Over time rifle ranges controlled by the NRAA have also been used by ADF including RARs for the core skill of shooting training, and competitions.


KIRKLAND, Frederick, OAM – Order of Australia 1975-1995

Publication data unknown, 1993

ISBN: 0958749124

Illustrations, index; 781 pages.

A detailed list of the recipients of the Order of Australia between 1975 and 1993. Includes RAR member recipients


KIRKLAND, Frederick – Sometimes Forgotten

Plaza Historical Service, Cremorne NSW, 1990

ISBN: 0958749108

Bibliography, 238 pages.

A record of those of Australia’s Military Forces (RAN, ARMY, RAAF) who died

and those who were decorated in Vietnam, Malay Peninsula, Korea, BCOF,

United Nations, HMAS Voyager, RMC Duntroon.


LAFFIN, John – The Australian Army at War 1899-1975

Osprey Publishing, London, 1982

ISBN: 0850454182

40 pages.

Illustrations of uniforms, arms and equipment of the Army, including the RAR from its formation until the mid-70s. Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 123.


LANDERS, Rick – Saddle up: Australian load carrying equipment of British, American & local origin

Self-published, Dural NSW, 1998

ISBN: 0646353225

Illustrated, bibliography; 128 pages.

A comprehensive reference to the webbing and field equipment of the Australian Army.


LINWOOD, Russell – Shoot to Win: The First Ten Years

Australian Army Rifle Association, Brisbane, 1993


A detailed history of the Australian Army Rifle Association including the creation and conduct of the Australian Army Skill at Arms Meeting (AASAM). Contains all records of AARA competitions and AASAM for the period 1993-2003, and features all battalions through competitors, regimental trophies and members of AARA, many of which were members of AARA.


MACKINLAY, Gordon. A – True Courage: The Distinguished Conduct

Medal to Australians 1939-1972

James Stedman Books and Militaria, Sydney, 1992

ISBN: 0646111795

Illustrations; 116 pages.

Includes RAR personnel from Korea and South Vietnam. The citations are

from the London Gazette.


MAITLAND, Gordon Major General – Honours and Awards of the Army

Playbill Pty Ltd, Moore Park NSW, 2014

ISBN 10: 0992515408

ISBN 13: 9780992515409

Profusely illustrated, Index, References; 260 pages

Profiting from two centuries of experience under the British (Imperial) system, Australia now has its own sound and comprehensive honours and awards structure which extends to honours and awards to citizens of other countries. This reference provides readers with a detailed history as well as providing images to support the narrative. Of great value to RAR members who hold such awards, and wider research generally.


MAITLAND, Gordon Major General – The Story of Australia’s Flags: Our Flags, Standards, Guidons, Colours, Banners, Battle Honours and Ensigns

Playbill Military Publications, North Moore Park NSW, 2015

ISBN: 978 0 9925154 1 6

Index, coloured and B & W photographs; 367 pages.

Reference book quality publication which provides substantial detail including RAR matters.


MATON, Michael – Australian recipients of Imperial honours and awards 1901-1989

Self-published, North Turramurra, NSW, 2002

ISBN: 0958560072

Index, multiple photographs, limited edition of only 100 copies; 746 pages.

This book contains an alphabetical list of honours and awards with no citations but does include units and often location where the action took place. Includes RAR members. Recipients of non-military awards are also listed. Obtainable at some libraries.


MATON, Michael – The Military Cross to Australians

The Author, St Ives, 2004

ISBN: 0958560080

Index; 805 pages.

Lists all Australians who received the Military Cross during WWI, WWII, the

Korean War, Malaya and Borneo and the Vietnam War.


McPHEDRAN, Ian   – Too Bold to Die: The Making of Australian War Heroes

Harper Collins Publishers, Sydney, 2013

ABN: 36 009 913 517

Index; 339 pages.

Book includes chapters addressing actions in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan that involved RAR members, usually in their regimental combat environment at the time. Identified as war heroes, not all of these individuals actually received formal awards for their deeds.


Museum of Arrogant Hubris

Contact Publishing, Minnamurra NSW, 2021

Online reference site

Most of the images and designs in this collection of garments and badges were worn proudly as morale-boosting emblems on shoulder patches or PT shirts in informal settings. A high percentage have their origins with RAR units/sub-units. They were mainly only sanctioned and/or tolerated as informal, good-natured, internal representations of unit or even sub-unit camaraderie – otherwise known as esprit de corps. But, these are all now banned in the Australian Defence Force – especially Army – yet still remain as fond memories – and treasured ‘illegal contraband’ – for many serving and ex-serving Australian military. Accessible at


NEVILLE, Leigh – Modern Snipers

Osprey Publishing, Oxford, 2016

ISBN: 978 1 4728 1534 7

Index, reference notes; 304 pages.

A multi-national coverage of Coalition snipers which includes references to Australian RAR and Special Forces snipers, and also photographs of known RAR snipers in Iraq (SECDET) and Afghanistan. Almost all, possibly all, RAR deployments included snipers in both wars.


NEVILLE, Leigh – The Australian Army at War 1976-2016

Osprey Publishing, Oxford,2019

ISBN: 9781472826329

Index, B & W and colour photographs, select bibliography; 48 pages.

This book refers to all RAR battalions except for 9 RAR, detailing their missions, evolving organisations, battle dress, insignia and equipment.


O’CONNOR, John – Shooting Awards and Prize Medals to Australian Military Forces 1860-2000

Self-published, Marrickville NSW, 2002

ISBN: 0957942109

Bibliography, Index, well illustrated with 48 colour plates; 186 pages.

Covers official shooting medals, badges and other awards made within the ADF including those made to cadets as well as Service personnel. Includes prominent coverage of the Australian Army Skill at Arms Meetings as well as regimental and other formation competitions including Champion Shot of the Army/Navy/Air Force and their predecessor awards. All battalions of the RAR are mentioned through winners, and on several trophies.

ORR, Rob – The history of the soldier’s load

Bepress, 2010


References; 23 pages.

This paper, also published in The Australian Army Journal Vol VII, No 2, address the load carrying of soldiers. The author himself is an RAR member and his work features RAR battalions in the general text along with multiple references to RAR documents and persons. It is particularly relevant to RAR soldiers. See


Roll of Honour

Australian War Memorial

In this innocuous site, the Advanced Search function may be clicked on with entry or any service person’s name to identify what records there are in the AWM’s storage system. Go to and enter the name. If the actual list of records don’t come up, then access the ‘People’ heading and go through the surnames presented there.


RUTHERFORD, Phillip D – Soldier: Uniforms of the Australian Army and the soldiers who wore them

Big Sky Publishing, Newport NSW, 2017

ISBN: 978 1 925520 83 5

Index, bibliography, many photographs; 430 pages.

Uniforms throughout the era of Australian soldiers. Includes RAR personnel. text accompanying each plate/photograph is comprehensive and informative. Every RAR member will have worn some of the uniforms depicted.


SCOTT, BAR – Chairing of the Rifle Shooting Champions – the Tradition

In The Target Rifle, an online publication of the NRAA. Published in Sep 21 this paper outlines the history of the chairing ceremony for Australian winners of rifle shooting competitions including the civilian King’s and Queen’s Prize, the military King’s and Queen’s Medal, and their placement – the Champion Shot of the Army. The author BRIG Bruce Scott, CSC (Retd) himself an RAR member and Australian Commonwealth Games full bore target rifle winner, includes several RAR recipients (photographs as well) in the paper. Accessible at


SKENNERTON, Ian – 100 years of Australian service machine guns

Arms and Militaria Press, QLD, 1989

ISBN 10: 0949749125

ISBN 13: 9780949749123

Highly illustrated, index; 124 pages.

Reference book which includes all machine (and sub-machine) guns used by the RAR.


SKENNERTON, Ian – 200 years of Australian military rifles and bayonets

Ian D Skennerton, Marget QLD, 1988

ISBN-10: 0949749117

ISBN-13: 978-0949749116

ASIN: B000TZ038U

Highly illustrated, index; 124 pages.

Reference book which includes all rifles and bayonets used by the RAR.


SKENNERTON, Ian – British service sword and lance patterns

Ian D Skennerton, Marget QLD, 1994

ISBN 10: 0646190369  

 ISBN 13: 9780646190365

Illustrated, index; 48 pages.

Reference book that includes the ceremonial sword worn by RAR officers and RSMs.


 SKENNERTON, Ian – SLR Australia’s FN FAL

Ian D Skennerton, Marget QLD, 1989

ISBN-10: 0949749133

ISBN-13: 978-0949749130

Highly illustrated, index; 124 pages.

Reference book on the prime rifle used by the RAR between the .303 and F88.


STRONGE, Charles Kill Shot: The deadliest snipers of all time

Ulysses Press, Berkeley California, 2011

ISBN: 978-1-56975-862-5

Index, Bibliography; 192 pages.

A general history of sniping. Mentions and contains a photo each of 4 RAR (Commando) and SECDET snipers in Afghanistan and Iraq respectively in Chapter 5.


Tracing the VC

Shine Story, Shrine of Remembrance

YouTube program.1 hour, 1 min, 9 secs.

An online series of interviews including the author Michael Madden who wrote the book The Victoria Cross: Australia Remembers, which is about all Australian VC winners of which several are RAR members. Assessed at


Unit Citation for Gallantry


Common entry on line that includes 1, 3, 4 (Commando) and 6 RAR. Accessible at


WAHLERT, Glenn and LINWOOD, Russell – One Shot Kills: A History of Australian Army Sniping

Big Sky Publishing, Sydney, 2014

ISBN: 978-1-922132-65-9

Bibliography, Index, extensively illustrated, 236 pages.

A longitudinal history of sniping in the Australian Army, with a preliminary chapter to provide a background to sniping as an extremely deadly component of warfare. Eight chapters step the reader through the wars and other deployments during which Australians have engaged with different sniping systems, with the inter-war years also covered. The future of sniping is addressed, and formal evidence is presented to support the assertion of the longest confirmed sniping kill in the world. RAR, SASR and commando snipers are covered. Current Australian sniper skills badges included.


WALTER, John – The Sniper Encyclopaedia: An A-Z guide to world sniping

Big Sky Publishing, Newport NSW, 2019

ISBN: 978192265005

B & W and colour images, bibliography, 306 pages.

A comprehensive mix of technical sniping weapons, snipers, manufacturers packaged into a reference book. Covers weapons used by RAR snipers and references an RAR sniper instructor.


WEDD, Monty – Australian military uniforms 1800-1982

Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, 1982

ISBN-10: 0949924121

ISBN-13: 978-0949924124

Coloured photographs and other illustrations, Index, bibliography; 144 pages.

Includes a good range of uniforms and equipment worn and carried by RAR members.



WIGMORE, Lionel – They Dared Mightily

1st Edition: AWM, Canberra, 1963

2nd Edition: AWM, Canberra, 1986

ISBN: 0 642 99471 4

Index, pages different.

Both list the 96 Australian Victoria Cross recipients at the time of publication. Second Edition is revised and condensed by Jeff Williams and Anthony Staunton, with three RAR recipients included. Each recipient’s action that led to the award are provided.


JAPAN & KOREA 1946-53


Anonymous – Army Colour Patch Register 1915-1949

Department of Defence, Canberra, 1993


Illustrations, fold out charts; 330 pages.

Reference book published in small numbers. It covers of the evolution of design of Australian Army colour patches from 1915 to 1949 and includes the predecessors of 1, 2 and 3 RAR.


Bill Madden (soldier)


Madden served in WW II, and re-enlisted for Korea with 3 RAR. In April 1951 when the Chinese attacked the regiment’s positions in the Battle of Kapyong, Madden was among three Australian soldiers captured. During captivity, he demonstrated strong defiance to his captors despite beatings and other punishments such as extreme rationing of his food. His ill treatment eventually resulted in his death from malnutrition sometime in late November or December 1951 at age 27.Madden was posthumously awarded the George Cross for his conduct as a prisoner of war, which set an example for his fellow captives. Accessible at


BLANCH, Craig – For Gallantry: Australians awarded the George Cross and the Cross of Valour

NewSouth Publishing- UNSW, Sydney, 2021

ISBN: 9781742236827

Illustrated, index, notes; 194 pages.

This book provides details of all winners of these two decorations for bravery. Includes 3 RAR recipient Bill Madden, GC (captured in Korea).


BULOW, Kerry (Compiler) – Foreign Awards to Australia from WWI to

the Korean War

Self-published, Hampton Park VIC, 2000

ISBN: 0646368656

Bibliography; 115 pages.

A section on each Service for the Korean War including foreign awards to

civilians and military personnel from 1950 to 1973. Only 100 copies printed.


GLYDE, Keith – Distinguishing Colour Patches of

The Australian Military Forces 1915-1951: A Reference Guide

Thai Watana Punich Press, Bangkok, 1999

ISBN: 06460366408

Index, bibliography, 68 pages of colour plates of colour patches,

254 pages.

Contains the colour patches of the original battalions of the RAR

and formation signs of the BCOF within which the RAR battalions were born.


PEARS, Maurie – Battlefield Korea: The Korean Battle Honours of the Royal Australian Regiment 1950-1953

Australian Military History Publications, Canberra, 2007

ISBN: 978 0 9803796 0 0

Index, bibliography, 129 pages.

Hard cover book containing regimental battle honours for the Korean War, and also Imperial and US awards made to RAR members; includes unit citations.


PEARS, Maurie – Battlefield Korea: The Korean Battle Honours of the Royal Australian Regiment 1950-1953 (Special Commemorative – 60th Anniversary of the Korean War Armistice – 27 July 1953

Queensland Korean War Memorial Committee, Gold Coast, 2013

ISBN: 978 0 9803796 0 0

Index, bibliography, 129 pages.

Soft cover reprint of 2007 book, including a logo and other cosmetic changes.


 PEARS, Maurie – The Queensland Korea War Memorial – Australia

Self-published, Isle of Capri QLD, 2015

ISBN: 978-0-958-1-1

Profusely illustrated in colour; 86 pages.

A pictorial commemoration booklet covering the creation and ceremonial opening of a memorial in Queensland. Includes a Roll of Honour; primarily RAR members.


Report of the Post-Armistice Korean Service Review

Australian Government

Dec 2005 Report addresses the service on Korea post- Armistice 23 July 1953 and concludes the award of a new medal the Australian General Service Medal for Korea and RASB. Accessible at


SMITH, Neil – Lance Corporal Horace William Madden, GC – Research notes and award records

Mostly unsung military history research and publications, Gardenvale VIC, undated

No photos, 20 A4 pages.

No ISBN, but available from publisher via email at [email protected]

This publication includes both World War II service and that in Korea where Madden serving with 3 RAR became a POW. He was eventually awarded a post-humous George Cross for his actions as a POW.


STACKER, Herbert A – Honours and Awards to Members of the First Battalion The Royal Australian Regiment Korea 1952-1953

Fast Books, Glebe NSW, 1994

ISBN: 0 64621773 9

Photographs and images, no index; 80 pages.

Lists awards made to 1 RAR in Korea, including errata correcting inserts in the 200 limited issue publication. Contains supporting citations for most awards. 1953 Coronation Medals and foreign awards are included. Author served with the unit in Korea.


SOUTH EAST ASIA 1950-current

(includes Malaya, Borneo, Singapore & Malaysia)


Anonymous – Grand Knight of Valour (Malaysia)

Wikipedia online entry

This award was made to Malaysian Armed and Security Forces during both the Borneo campaign (1962-1966) and Second Malaysian Emergency/Communist Insurgency War 1968-89 during which RAR battalions and companies served in those areas. See


Australian Government – Inquiry into recognition of Rifle Company Butterworth for Service in Malaysia between 1970 and 1989

Defence Honours and Awards Appeals Tribunal, Canberra, 2011

25 pages.

Chaired by Professor Dennis Pearce, AO, this Inquiry examined a claim for recognition of service at Air Base Butterworth from 1970 to 1989 as warlike. Report is at All RAR battalions deployed multiple companies to this mission. A list of all deployments is available form the Registrar of the RARA Bibliography and will also be contained in Part 16 of this record.


Final Report (NZ) by the Medallic Recognition Joint Working Party on Service in SE Asia 1950- 2011

Headquarters New Zealand Defence Force, Wellington, 2021


Examines a range of service by NZ veterans including at Air Base Butterworth where RAR coys from 1 RAR and 6 RAR also served. Individuals are mentioned as witnesses.  This report, based on limited and misleading evidence determined that NZ vets (like their AS counterparts did not render operational (or warlike) service.


Reassessment of the recommendations of the Medallic Recognition Joint Working Group on New Zealand Military Service In South East Asia 1955-1989

Headquarters New Zealand Defence Force, Wellington, 2021


Maps, bibliography; 63 pages.

This report sets aside its predecessor, known as the Medallic Recognition Joint Working Group Interim (2011) and Final Report on South East Asia (December 2013) and recognises service by NZ veterans who served in a range of places in Malaysia including at Air Base Butterworth as operational and recommends the award of the NZ Operational Service Medal. Reference is made to Australian RCB (RAR) units and individuals. Accessible at


Report on the inquiry into recognition of service with Operation Gateway

Australian Government (Defence Honours & Awards Appeals Tribunal), Canberra, 2013

 Report of medallic entitlements to RAAF personnel engaged in this operation which was conducted from Air Base Butterworth, which in turn was protected by RCB, supplied by every RAR, from where this operation was conducted form early 1980 to the end of the Communist Insurgency in Malaysia (1868-1989. Some RCB members flew on the P3C Orions undertaking the Operation Gateway mission. Accessible at


SCURR, John – The Malayan Campaign 1948-60

Osprey Publishing, London, 1982

Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 132

ISBN: 085045476X

40 pages.

Primarily about uniforms and equipment of those who served in the

Malayan Campaign, including those of the RAR. Major incidents and personalities also feature.


SMITH, Neil – Purple With a Green Stripe: Australian Military Force Recipients of the General Service Medal, 1918-1964

Mostly Unsung, Gardenvale VIC, 1991

ISBN: 0646046411

Photographs, maps bibliography; 122 pages.

Essentially a roll of recipients of this British medal but does include Australia’s involvement in Malaya 1948-60 and Borneo 1962-64. RAR recipients.


Veterans rightly given formal recognition of their service

NZ Minister for Defence, Wellington, 2021

Online media release

The  Hon Peeni Henare NZ Minister for Defence, announced the award of the NZ Operational Service Medals for service by NZ veterans in SE Asia including at Air Base Butterworth where 1 RAR and 6 RAR served at the same time as RCB, followed by all other Ras during the Malaysian Communist Insurgency War 1968-1989, Accessible at


WHITTON, Howard – Rifle Company Butterworth – recognition of service – Report of review and recommendations

Ethicos, Queensland, 2021


6 pages.

A report, from a noted authority on governance ethics and decision making, on the RCB veterans’ claim for warlike service recognition during the Communist Insurgency in Malaysia 1968-1989. All RARs deployed rifle companies repeatedly to honour this deployment which was sold to the public as ‘training’ being a security deception to avoid international sensibilities. Accessible at



VIETNAM 1962-75


1 RAR recognised for Vietnam Service

Australian Army

In 2015, 1 RAR was awarded the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with Palm Unit Citation for its service in Vietnam. Details are accessible a


Anonymous – The Register of the Victoria Cross

This England Books, Cheltenham UK, 1981

ISBN: 0906324033

Illustrated, bibliography; 301 pages.

Contains a list and some detail on all VC winners up to 1981, numbering 1,348. Of the Australians, three were RAR members either at the time of being awarded the VC, or had served with the RAR – Warrant Officers Payne, Wheatley and Simpson.


Anonymous – Western Australian Vietnam Veterans Flag Presentation 2 Oct 1988

Presentation Committee, Perth, 1988

ISBN: Not known


Not a unit history but has photographic Honour Roll of all Western Australians killed in South Vietnam, with dates.


Anonymous – Western Australian Vietnam Memorial Pavilion Dedication Ceremony- King’s Park, 1 October 1989

Trustees of the Vietnam Memorial Pavilion, Perth, 1989

ISBN: Not known


Not a unit history but has photographs, Honour Roll including units of 61

Western Australian members killed in South Vietnam.


Australian Government – Report of the inquiry into unit recognition for service at the Battles of Fire Support Bases Coral and Balmoral

Defence Honours and Awards Appeals Tribunal, Canberra, 2018

Actual report is at . This report led to the granting of the Unit Citation for Gallantry to a range of units including 1 RAR and 3 RAR.


BARNES, I.L. – Gallant and Distinguished Service Vietnam 1962-1973

Military Historical Society of Australia, Canberra, 1974

ISBN 0909859094 and 0909859108(paperback)

Illustrations;154 pages.

Essentially an honours and awards list for South Vietnam including foreign

awards and unit citations to Australians. Includes many RAR members.


The Battle of Long Tan: Decorations, medals and awards

Australian War Memorial/Red Dune Films

2019 website, possibly a Red Dunes blog

Actual awards made, and those recommended. Site dated, but shows progress made and awarded recommended. Accessible at


The Battle of Long Tan: Military Cross presentation to Major Harry Smith – Vietnam (F03833)

Australian War Memorial/Red Dune Films

YouTube film

Black and white, sound, 2 minutes, 21 seconds

Covers several of the awards made to members of D Coy 6 RAR, focussing on Major Harry Smith. Also online at


CECIL, Michael K – Australian Military Equipment Profile – Volume 4 – The M113 & M113A1 APCs in Australian Service 1962-1972

Australian Military Equipment Profile, Gunning NSW, 1994

ISBN-10: 0646181815

ISBN-13: 978-0646181813

Illustrated with photographs and line drawings, index; 56 pages.

Covers all of the M113 family with which the RAR battalions of the period are very familiar in both Vietnam and training in the period in question. Includes information on the APC Trials conducted including the FV432 Trojan and M113 APC trials.


CECIL, Michael K – Mud and Dust: Australian Army Vehicles & Artillery in Vietnam

New Holland Publishers (Aust) Pty Ltd, Sydney, 2009

ISBN: 9781741107678

Maps, Illustrations, Appendices, references; 304 pages.

A detailed source of data on vehicles used by Australian troops in Vietnam including the RAR units, and the armour and artillery that worked in direct support of the RAR battalions. RAR members fought in close mutual support with their sister Corps’ unit and weapon systems shown in the book. All battalions are mentioned, and many RAR members are pictured.


CHENOWITH, Bob – Army gunships in Vietnam (Warbird Illustrated No 47)

Arms and Armour, London, 1988

ISBN-10: 0853688540

ISBN-13: 978-0853688549

Illustrated, index; 186 pages.

Covers the range of helicopter gunships which flew in support of allied operations including all of the RAR battalions in Vietnam.


GREGORY, Barry – Vietnam helicopter handbook

Patrick Stephens publishing, Sparkford UK, 1988

ISBN: 9781852600242

Illustrations, index; 448 pages.

Covers one of the central entities to characterised the war in Vietnam – helicopter operations in which virtually every RAR member rode.


Hulse and the Department of Defence re: Jensen

Australian Government, Canberra, 2020


Report DHAAT 15. On 27 August 2020 the Defence Honours and Awards Appeals Tribunal found that Lieutenant A.H. Jensen performed acts of gallantry in action in hazardous circumstances as the commander of the 1st Battalion’s mortar line on 13 May 1968 and that his actions meet the eligibility criteria for the award of the Medal for Gallantry. This award was subsequently made to this 1 RAR officer. Accessible at


LYLES, Kevin – Vietnam Anzacs: Australian & New Zealand Troops in Vietnam 1962-72

Osprey Publishing, Oxford, 2004

ISBN: 9781841767024 & 1841767026

Index, illustrations, reference bibliography; 65 pages.

Covers the decade of Australian involvement in the war with an emphasis on personal arms, equipment and badges in use at the time, including by RAR members.


MESKO, Jim – Airmobile: the helicopter war in Vietnam

Squadron/Signal Publications, International, 1984

ISBN-10: 0897471598

ISBN-13: 978-0897471596

Colour and B  & W illustrations, index; 64 pages.

Generic coverage of helicopter and airmobile operations in Vietnam. While all RAR battalions made extensive use of the helicopter troop lift and gunship support capacity provided by both US and RAAF aircraft, 1 RAR took part in the 173rd  US Airborne Brigade during its first tour of duty in Vietnam a war widely known as the first one to see the widespread use of air mobility provided by rotary aircraft.


PALMER, Alexander M – Vietnam Veterans: a record of service

Self-published, Perth, 1995

ISBN: 0646225871

Index, bibliography; 313 pages.

Covers the Vietnam War 1962-1975 listing operations in a chronology; also medals and other military decorations.


PALMER, Alexander M – Vietnam Veterans Honours & Awards Army

Military Minded, Mossman Park, WA, 1995

ISBN 0646239783

Index; 302 pages.

Second compendium volume of the series. Includes a list of Australian Army recipients of honours and awards for the Vietnam War, and provides the complete recommendations for every award for both gallantry and meritorious service, from the Victoria Cross to the Mentioned in Despatches.


SUTTON, Ross (compiler) – Australian Awards Vietnam 1962-1991

Ross Sutton, Summer Hill NSW, 1992

ISBN: 0646083805

127 pages.

A record of those Australian Servicemen, including RAR members, who were awarded British and Foreign Awards for service in South Vietnam.


The Battle of Long Tan: Australian Prime Minister present US Presidential Unit Citation – Vietnam War

Australian War Memorial/Red Dune films

YouTube film

Black and white, sound; 5 minutes, 27 seconds

Covers the parade at Lavarack Barracks Townsville where PM Gorton presents D Coy 6 RAR with their US Presidential Unit Citation. Accessible at


The General Service Medal 1962 with Clasp South Vietnam

Vietnam Veterans Association of Australia

Details of the medal awarded for service in 1962 to members of the AATV which included RAR members. Accessible at,Majesty’s%20Forces%20in%20these%20territories.


Two-step Charlie: five deadliest booby traps of the Vietnam war


9 minutes 10 seconds footage

American compilation, but shows booby traps commonly confronting RAR and other Australian troops in Vietnam. Accessible at


                                                                                    PEACE KEEPING & PEACEMAKING OPERATIONS

( UN and other operations such as Rwanda 1994-95, Cambodia 1994-95, Papua New Guinea 1946 to 1975, East Timor 1999-2012, Bougainville 1994, The Solomon Islands 2000 -2008, Rhodesia 1980, Somalia 1992-93, Uganda)


Inquiry into recognition of Australian Defence Force service for Special Air Service counter terrorist and special recovery duties

Australian Government (Defence Honours and Awards Appeals Tribunal)

Inquiry that lead to the award of the ASM (with CT/SR clasp). Mentions RARs including 4 RAR (Commando) and a range of RAR personalities. Accessible at


Inquiry into recognition of Australian Defence Force Service in Somalia between 1992 and 1995

Defence Honours and Awards Appeals Tribunal, Canberra, 2010

DHAAT Inquiry into deployment of ADF forces following extensive requests for additional consideration. The bulk of the Army component was 1 RAR Battalion Group. Report available at


Inquiry into recognition of service with the Commonwealth Monitoring Force – Rhodesia 1979-80

Australian Government (Defence Honours and Awards Appeals Tribunal)

The inquiry was concerned primarily with the claim that the 152 members of the ADF including RAR members who served in the Commonwealth Monitoring Force in Rhodesia should be awarded the Australian Service Medal . Those members had previously been awarded the Rhodesia Medal and the Zimbabwe Independence Medal in 1980. The latter medal was awarded by the Zimbabwe Government and is considered to be a foreign medal. Accessible at


Inquiry into recognition of service with Operation Lagoon

Australian Government (Defence Honours and Awards Appeals Tribunal)

18-page report on medallic reward for participants in Operation Lagoon, 1994. Award of the requested ASM was not recommended. Some ex-RAR officers are mentioned.

Accessible at


Meritorious Unit Citation

Defence Honours and Awards

This site specifies the MUC and contains information about its award to 2 and 2/4 RAR (and other) personnel for Operation Tamar in Rwanda. See


PALMER, Alexander M – Australian Peacekeepers and Peacemakers

Military Minded, Mossman Park WA, 1996

ISBN: 0646239775

48 pages of plates, illustrations;180 pages.

Comprehensive record of members of the Australian Army who have

been awarded the Australian Active Service Medal, the Australian

Service Medal and the Commonwealth Monitoring Force Rhodesia

Medal from 1975 to April 1996. For specified deployments Includes lots of group photos and a biographical roll of service personnel 1975-1996.


IRAQ 2003-09 and 2014–ongoing

Nil entry




Afghanistan veterans denied the ICB/ACB

Veteransweb Network, Australia, 2022

Report that RAR and other veterans are being denied the ICB or ACB (RAR troops can elect one or the other) despite giving qualifying service per the extant regulations in the Force Protection Element task groups in Kabul, Afghanistan during Operation Highroad since 2021 to 2021. Accessible at


MADDEN, Michel C – The Victoria Cross: Australia Remembers

Big Sky Publishing, Newport NSW.

ISBN: 9781925520989

Coloured photographs, index; 459 pages.

The only VC (of Australia) awarded to a member while serving on an RAR battalion (CPL Daniel Keighan – 6RAR) at the time of the award is included.



(Civilian Humanitarian Disaster ops (incl Darwin 1975 and other cyclones and floods, overseas eg PNG, Indian Ocean, and lately, Border Operations, and DACC (non-disaster) eg Olympics and Commonwealth Games and other government support eg APEC, G20)


Nil Entry




Australian Army – Australian Army Skill at Arms Meeting (AASAM 20)

Annual small arms competition for the entire ADF and international teams accommodated, involving RAR staff and competitors since its inception. First conducted in 1984, and annually ever since. AASAM includes many trophies, including the RARA Association Trophy, others donated by RAR battalions (1 and 3), and all three brigades in the late ninetees (1,3 and 6). It was initially conducted by the Australian Army Rifle Association on behalf of the Directorate of Infantry until this responsibility was assumed by CATC. AASAM 2020 details are at


CONTACT Magazine

 A new Australian Operational Service Medal (AOSM) for Special Operations was announced on 1 Nov 19 to replace the ASM 45-75 and ASM 76-2019. See

Interestingly this is an operational service medal, one of a series produces since 2012 to also replace the ASM and AASM and other warfighting/campaign medals. A range of RAR personnel will wear these awards over time as they move out of the special forces who are the only ones entitled to receive this new medal.


Inquiry into recognition if Australian Defence Force service for Special Air Service counter terrorist and special recovery duties

Australian Government (Defence Honours and Awards Appeals Tribunal, Canberra, 2009


Footnotes, 37 pages

This report includes 4 RAR (Commando) as part of the Special Forces under consideration for an award.



MITZER, Stijn & LOIEMANS, Joost – The Armed Forces of North Korea: On the path of Songun

Helion and Company, London, 2020

ISBN: 9781910777145

Multiple photographs, maps, tables, index; 144 pages.

This book seeks to bring order and coherence to the chaotic state of affairs in the intelligence community of North Korea-watchers, as well as to disprove that there is little to fear from the DPRK by providing information on a plethora of never-before described weapons systems and modernisation programmes.
The book maps the most important events from the inconclusive ceasefire struck at the end of the Korean War in which 1, 2 and 3 RAR fought, throughout the Cold War until modern day. A comprehensive listing of the equipment holdings of the Korean People’s Army is included, offering a numerical assessment of its naval and aerial capabilities. From the recently introduced stealth missile boats, ballistic missile submarines and main battle tank families to their often-ignored indigenous aircraft industry. A rare source of information to help inform the reader of a possible future adversary.


NICHOLSON, Brandan – The Bushmaster: From concept to combat

Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Canberra, 2019

ISBN: 9781925229578

Illustrated; 115 pages.

A technical coverage of the development, production and operational deployment of the Bushmaster, famed for its excellent protection record achieved in part because of its landmine/IED-blast-deflecting V-shaped hull. Created as a Protected Mobility Vehicle, over 1,000 were built in Australia for the ADF, and a quantity have been exported. RAR battalions are the prime users of this vehicle, with several units and individuals mentioned throughout the text.


Recognising their service (Report)

Defence Honours and Awards Appeals Tribunal, Canberra, 2021

91 pages.

A report on the inquiry into recognition for members and families of members of the Australian Defence Force who are injured. Wounded and killed in or as a result of service. Addresses the issue of medallic/symbolic recognition for such occurrences. The RARA made a submission to this and it affects all RAR members, past, present and future. Accessible at


Small arms

Australian Army

A general coverage of the small arms in service at this time with most found in RAR battalions. See


Weapons of the ADF – Handy Reference Guide Part 1 (Revision 2)

Contact Land, Sea and Air, Sydney, 2020

30 pages.

A quality illustrated product that is available online from which can be printed out and cut to fit into an ADF Viewee-Twoee, a book-type tool carried by many service personnel. Available free from the producers of CONTACT magazine. This Part covers small arms and support weapons. All RAR personnel will be very familiar with them.


Weapons of the ADF – Handy Reference Guide Part 2

Contact Land, Sea and Air, Sydney, 2020

27 pages.

A quality illustrated product that is available online from which can be printed out and cut to fit into an ADF Viewee-Twoee, a book-type tool carried by many service personnel. Available free from the producers of CONTACT magazine. This Part covers heavy support weapons for Army, artillery, armour and aviation weapon systems, and RAN and RAAF systems. small arms and support weapons. All RAR personnel will be very familiar with them.