Australia Army Bicentennial Royal Guard: Mounting Public Duties at the Royal Places UK

Army Audio Visual Unit, Canberra ACT, 1988

DVD available at each RAR and Infantry Centre Museums

A visual record of the preparation and delivery of mounting duties at the Royal Places in the UK in 1988. 120 members of the RAR, 20 from each battalion at the time are supported by a 57-man band.

CHARLTON, Bill – A Ragged Bunch of Diggers: Poetry by Bill Charlton

Charlton Publishing, Valentine NSW, 1999

ISBN: 0 9577620 03

Photographs, Index; 80 pages.

A book of poetry, many about RAR personalities; regarded as a ‘must’ for anyone to have worn army boots. Author served in Vietnam with 1 RAR.

CHARLTON, Bill – A Rugged Bunch of Diggers: Poetry by Bill Charlton Book 2

Charlton Publishing, Valentine NSW, 2001

ISBN: 0-9577620-2-X

Colour and black & white photographs; 96 pages.

The second book of poems from Charlton, many of which are also about RAR personalities.

FAHEY, Warren – Diggers’ songs: Songs of the Australians in eleven wars

Australian Military Historical Publications, Melbourne, 1996

ISBN: not identified

Song index, Black and white images; 234 pages.

A book of songs sung by Australian soldiers incl RAR members.

Love under fire (Keith Payne, VC, AM)

In the Australian Womens’ Weekly, Nov 21. The story of Warrant Officer Class II Keith Payne, VC, AM and his wife and family. Payne was awarded the VC in Vietnam.

MANSFORD, George – Junior Leadership on the Battlefield 1990

Headquarters Training Command, Sydney, 1990

ISBN: 7610 66 135 0078

References, B & W photos; 84 pages.

This revised pamphlet, intended also for public consumption, provides examples of good junior Australian leadership on the battlefield. Its post WW II portion includes many examples from RAR members. Notified in Defence Instruction (Army) ADMIN 20 Series for 1990 and printed by AGPS, VIC, 1993.

MANSFORD, George – Junior Leadership on the Battlefield 1994 (Second Edition)

Army Office, Canberra, 1994

ISBN: 0 642 20293 1

References, B & W photos; 74 pages.

This revised pamphlet, intended also for public consumption, provides examples of good junior Australian leadership on the battlefield. Its post WW II portion includes many examples from RAR members. Notified in Defence Instruction (Army) ADMIN 20 Series for 1994.

Manual of Land Warfare, Part Two, Corps Doctrine, Infantry Training, Pamphlet No 1, The Infantry Battalion (All Corps) 1984

 Australian Army, Sydney, 1984

Core doctrinal guidance on the battalion produced by Headquarters Training Command. Available in both paper and digital format. Superseded.

Manual of Land Warfare, Part Two, Corps Doctrine, Infantry Training, Pamphlet No 2 – The Platoon (All Corps), 1986

Australian Army, Sydney,1986

Core doctrinal guidance on the rifle platoon produced by Headquarters Training Command. Available in both paper and digital format. Superseded. Accessible at


Manual of Land Warfare, Part Two, Infantry Training Volume 3, Pamphlet No 3 – Patrolling and Tracking (All Corps), 1977

Australian Army, Sydney, 1977 

Core doctrinal guidance on this skill produced by Headquarters Training Command. Superseded.

Manual of Land Warfare, Part Two, Infantry Training Volume 3, Pamphlet No 4 – Ambush and Counter Ambush (All Arms), 1964

Australian Army, Sydney, 1964

Core doctrinal guidance on this skill produced by Headquarters Training Command. Superseded.

Manual of Land Warfare, Part One, Volume 1, Pamphlet No 4, Formation Tactics, 1987

Australian Army, Sydney, 1987

Core doctrinal guidance on the formation (usually a brigade/Task Force) produced by Headquarters Training Command. Superseded.

NQRA History Project Team – So you went Target Rifle Shooting… : History of the North Queensland Rifle Association 1886 to 2017

Self-published through BlueberriDesign, Townsville, 2019


References listed after each chapter, black and white photographs, tables, seven Appendices; 228 pages.

A history of rifle shooting in the NQRA, includes details of the most prominent RAR target rifle shooter in terms of international achievement – BRIG Bruce Scott, CSC (Retd). Researchers will find that many other RAR members over the years have honed their military skills through participation in this civilian sport, not only as members of the NQRA, but also other Australian Rifle Associations. All RAR units have also trained with their military weapons on civilian ranges including those mentioned in this book when long distance ranges were needed or when military firing range capacity was exceeded.

PETRO, OAM, George – The art of sacrifice

Big Sky Publishing, Newport NSW, 2021

ISBN-13: 9781922387929

Fully illustrated, index; 400 pages.

A publication of paintings of ADF people including recognisable RAR troops. This source provides visual impressions to the prosecution of war over time.


RICHARDSON, Matthew (Ed) – War in words – One hundred years of Australian war writing

Halstead Classics, Broadway NSW, 2007

ISBN: nil

270 pages.

A collection of writings including poems and short stories by authors including and about RAR operations.

Royal Australian Regiment (The) – Regimental Standing Orders 1977

Regimental Headquarters, Canberra, 1977


Currently A4 assembled document of 13 chapters; approx 200 pages.

This is the 1977 edition of RAR Standing Orders. It contains General Information on the RAR, details of the Colonel Commandant function, Regimental Colonel function, Regimental Alliances, and histories of the battalions (12), RAR Council, Dress, Rules, Officers and Sergeant’s Messes, Sports and Competitions. A trove of data. Once digitised it will be available through Part 16 of this bibliography as well.

RUSS, Barry (Consultant Editor) – Duty First: 1948 – 2008: 60 years

of the Royal Australian Regiment

Faicountmediagroup, Sydney, 2008


88 pages.

This green covered (undated) publication is a 60 year commemorative edition with multiple editors and writers. It includes a series of feature articles, snapshots of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 and 8/9 RAR (the RAR at the time), articles on notable persons and finishes with a Futures article by the then Chief of Army, LTGEN Peter Leahy, himself of the RAR. Essentially, a snapshot commercially supported publication intended to celebrate the point in time with a contemporary contribution to the literature in 2008.

Standing Orders for operations/1st Battalion The Royal Australian Regiment

Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1964

Monograph stored manually by the AWM

Call numberV355.310994 A888S, or Bar Code AWM 040621

Specifies what 1 RAR was to do in operations in the time of publications. Superseded, bur historically important.

 WELBURN, MCJ – The development of Australian Army doctrine 1945-1964

Australian National University, Canberra,1994 

ISBN: 0 7315 2106 4

Diagrams, appendixes, bibliography; 105 pages.

Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Research School of Pacific Studies (Canberra Paper (CP) No.108)

Paper examines the development and application of doctrine over the period, refers to several RARs and 27 and 28 Commonwealth Brigades in which several RARs served in Korea and Malaya respectively. Touches upon the pentomic and pentropic battalion experiments and the difficulties experienced which swapping from either of these to jungle warfare deployments in SE Asia by RAR battalions and others. Paper available at


Infantry Training – Volume IV – Tactics – The Infantry Battalion in Battle 1952

The War Office, London, 1952

Diagrams, 197 pages.

British Army pamphlet issued to and used by RAR and other battalions in 1952. At the times, Australia still used a wide range of British doctrine, and this one was the core source of doctrine at battalion level. Available in some military and other museums.

SOUTH EAST ASIA 1950-current

(includes Malaya, Borneo, Singapore & Malaysia)

British Army – The Conduct of Anti-Terrorist Operations in Malaya (1st Edition)

HQ Malaya Command, Kuala Lumpur, 1952

A specific-to-campaign reference book (pamphlet) comprising 23 chapters. With a foreword by the High Commissioner/Director of Operations, General Templar, the ATOM pamphlet as it became popularly known, was used by Australian RAR troops as well.

British Army – The Conduct of Anti-Terrorist Operations in Malaya (2nd Edition)

HQ Malaya Command, Kuala Lumpur, 1954

A specific-to-campaign reference book (pamphlet) comprising 23 chapters. With a foreword by the Director of Operations, General Bourne, the ATOM pamphlet as it became popularly known, was used by Australian RAR troops as well. Updated to take account of experiences 1952-54.

British Army – The Conduct of Anti-Terrorist Operations in Malaya (3rd Edition)

HQ Malaya Command, Kuala Lumpur, 1958

A specific-to-campaign reference book (pamphlet) comprising 23 chapters. The ATOM pamphlet, as it became popularly known, was used by Australian RAR troops who by the time of publication had been in-country for several years so it is probable that input came from them as well as British forces as well. Updated to take account of experiences 1955-58.

HARVEY, John – Conventional Deterrence and national security

Air Power Studies Centre, Fairbairn ACT, 1997

ISBN: 0642265146

Index, bibliography; 125 pages.

In Chapter 10 covers the Five Power Defence Agreement and addresses Air Base Butterworth (see page 95) and its role including RAAF operations and ground troops (RCBs which were provided in that time by RAR battalions). Accessible at

McCarthy, Dayton S – The once and future Army: an organizational, political and social history of the Citizen Military Forces, 1947-1974

Australian Defence Force Academy, UNSW, Canberra, 1997


 A PhD Thesis, 421 pages.

Primarily addresses the Citizen Military Forces (CMF). However a section of it (Chapter 4) deals with the Pentropic Battalion experiment carried out by the Army including the RAR battalions in 1960-64, where the RAR is discussed with respect to its relationship to the rest of the army, including the CMF. Thesis is located at

VIETNAM 1962-75

American Veterans Center – Good morning Vietnam! Adrian Cronauer on Accuracy

Youtube, 7 minutes 46 seconds

Presentation by Adrian Cronauer the real radio announcer who compares his real experiences to those of the movie by the same name featuring actor Robyn Williams. Australian veterans in Vietnam including virtually all RAR troops will have listed to the actual show.

Anonymous – Australian Vietnam Forces National Reunion – Sydney ‘87

Australian Vietnam Forces “Welcome home ‘87” Pty Ltd, Sydney, 1987


Black and white images; 29 pages.

Commemorative publication which features a range of RAR individuals among the many featured; publication reflects the belated national homecoming reunion ceremonies, parades, functions and tours organised by a committee chaired by Peter Poulton.

Anonymous – Vietnam: their place in history

Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 2022

ISBN: 0642184496

Illustrated, index; 20 pages.

An AWM guide to records relating to the Vietnam war, with help on how to conduct research at the AWM. It also provides excellent detail on where and how to access other records held outside the memorial itself; eg  National Library of Australia, Australian Archives, various government departments, regional storage locations, personal case files, other libraries. A powerful tool for researchers seeking information on the Vietnam War.

Australian Army – Training Information Bulletin No 69: Infantry Battalion Lessons from Vietnam 1965-71

Headquarters Training Command, Sydney, 1988


DSN: 7610-66-130-0811

Notified in (DI(A) ADMIN 20 series for 1988, Army pamphlet

Curiously this product was only published formally 17 years after the war to which it applied, although it has been pressed into service in document form much earlier as lessons learned accumulated. Covers tactics and weapons and includes quotes from a range of RAR veterans from the Vietnam war.

BUSHBY, RN – ‘Educating an Army: Australian Army doctrinal development and the operational experience in South Vietnam, 1965-72

Australian National University, Canberra,1998 

Diagrams, appendixes, bibliography, 130 pages.

Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Research School of Pacific Studies (Canberra Papers on Strategy and Defence (CP) No. 126)

This monograph examines how the Australian Army met the challenges to its doctrine presented by the Vietnam War. The war produced some widely varied tactical problems, and the flexibility and deep experience which were the hallmarks of the army in the 1960s provide the key to understanding how these problems were solved. After surveying the origins of the Australian Army’s counter-revolutionary warfare doctrine, the monograph examines the challenges to and development of this doctrine in the four periods of Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War: working alongside US forces (May 1965-June 1966); the establishment of the independent task force (May 1965 to January 1968); the period of ‘out of province’ operations (January 1968- on; and the final period of Vietnamisation and pacification. RARs are mentioned and all are directly involved, with many of the references including primary material coming from RAR writers. Paper accessible at

DOWSETT, Bill – Vietnam: a reporter’s war

ABC, Sydney, 1975

ISBN: 064297473X

87 pages.

Shortly after the surrender of the South Vietnam government in 1975 the ABC radio public affairs team produced a two-hour special on the war. ABC Radio Public Affairs Program; produced by Brian Furlonger and narrated by Bill Dowsett. Broadcast 14 May 1975. This is the written version of that program. The RAR is mentioned in the context of the total Australian commitment.

Dr James Raymond Bourke MG, AM

Senator Ian Macdonald website

Short story on LTCOL Jim Burke MG,AM (Retd) who served tour duties of Vietnam and was later the driving force behind the successful recovery of the remains of the last six Australians MIA in Vietnam. Accessed at

EASTGATE, Ross OAM – Last men standing did one hell of a job

This author is a journalist who has a regular column also available online. This piece succinctly summarises the role and history of the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam (AATTV) in one page. Many of the AATTV members were RAR men. Accessible at

GREY, RA, LTCOL – 7 RAR Notes on Operations Vietnam 1970-71

Directorate of Infantry, Canberra, 1971


Provided ‘hot debrief’ lessons learnt towards the end of the Australian involvement in Vietnam. Widely circulated at the time across Army, these notes are available from most Defence Libraries and RAR Museums.

HALL, RA & ROSS AT – The effectiveness of combined arms teams in urban terrain: The battle of Binh Ba, Vietnam 1969, and the battles of Fallujah, Iraq, 2004

Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Adelaide, 2006


A working paper which examines the Battle of Binh Ba, involving 5 RAR and 6 RAR over 6-8 Jun 69. The paper makes ocmparisons with US force assaults in Iraq in Fallujah.

HIDDLESTONE, Janine Francis – An uneasy legacy: Vietnam veterans and Australian Society

James Cook University, Townsville, 2004

Thesis for the award of PhD which examines the origins, veracity and consequences of the veteran stereotypes. It uses a range of sources, including documents, film, and interviews to explore the experience of veterans since the war ended – and ultimately their struggle to find a suitable place in Australian history. There is a methodological focus on oral history, based on a group of veterans in the North Queensland region. The study finds that there is neither a simple nor a single explanation, but rather a series of events, decisions and outcomes accumulating over a period of time. Mentions RARs and AATTV and involved such people in the study. Accessible at

LASSMAN, Denise – Australia’s involvement in Vietnam 1962-1965

Self-published thesis with University of NSW, Sydney, 1973

Detailed content not identified, multiple primary and secondary references.

Thesis “Australia’s involvement in Vietnam 1962 to 1965”. Examines the social and political implications of Australia’s escalated involvement in Vietnam during this period. Based on official explanations offered by the government before the release of cabinet papers. Copy held at UNSW and AWM.

LEE, Sandra Finger – Vietnam on Canvas: McFadyen, Ken: An Artist at Work

Barrallier Books, Melbourne, 2010

ISBN: 10: 098066330X

ISBN: 13: 9780980663303

Colour & B/W photographs; 144 pages.

McFadyen was attached to 2 RAR as an official war artist in Vietnam and most of the images in this publication would therefore feature that unit.

MAHONEY, Phillip (Editor) – From both sides now: the poetry of the Vietnam war and its aftermath

Scribner Book Company, New York, 1998

ISBN-10: 068484947X

ISBN-13: 978-0684849478

Illustrated, index; 320 pages.

An anthology of poems written by many people involved in the Vietnam war and its aftermath, from both sides.

Military Board – The Soldier’s Handbook

Military Board, Army Headquarters, 1965

Item 7610-66-021-1631 (Army Routine orders dated 31 May 1965)

Photographs and images incl rank and service ribbons; 148 pages.

This widely issued information source, classified RESTRICTED at the time was issued to all Army personnel and Army cadets. Features RAR personnel as dress and fieldcraft models including (then SGT) MAJ RLJ Northcott, AM (Retd).

NIGHTINGALE, Keith – The bush

Self-published, Facebook, 2023

An extraordinarily vivid description of being ‘in the bush’ in South Vietnam, and experience everyone who served there, especially as RAR members, will relate to. Accessible at

R & R Vung Tau


Colour and sound video 1 min 35 secs

Rare footage of entertainment in Vung Tau where both sides including RAR troops would take R & R during the Vietnam War. Accessible at

South Vietnam Pocket Book June 1967

Australian Military Forces, Canberra, 1967


Illustrations, map; 77 pages.

Control number 7620-66-023-3281/1, the official publication was issued to personnel training for and deploying to Vietnam. Accessible at

USBACK, Rodney – The battle of Coral-Balmoral

Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 2019

9.02 minute digital artwork

Online depiction at–Balmoral,_Vietnam_1968 of these battles involving 1 RAR and 3 RAR. Usback is a Vietnam veteran who, fifty years after the war became an artist, entered this remarkable piece of moving artwork in the 2019 Napier Waller Art Prize competition.

Vietnam: Exchange of letters between the Prime Minister ….

Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Canberra, 1965

Online transcript of letters exchanged between Prime Minister Menzies and several senior church officials about the Vietnam war. Accessible at

YULE, Peter – The long shadow: Australia’s Vietnam veterans since the war

NewSouth Publishing, Sydney, 2020

ISBN: 9781742237183

Illustrated, index; bibliography; 688 pages.

The medical and psychological legacies of the Vietnam War are major and continuing issues for veterans, families and the community, yet the facts about the impact of Agent Orange, PTSD and other long-term health aspects are little understood. This book addresses the health of Vietnam veterans and reveals a more detailed and complex picture by takings a broad approach to the medical legacies, exploring the post-war experiences of Vietnam veterans, the evolution and development of the repatriation system in the post-Vietnam decades and the evolving medical understanding of veterans’ health issues.


(Somalia 1992-93, Rwanda 1994-95, Cambodia 1991-95, Papua New Guinea 1946 to 1975, East Timor 1999-2012, Bougainville 1994, The Solomon Islands 2000 -2008, all remaining deployments not covered by UN or above (Rhodesia, Uganda)

Management of Australian Defence Force deployment to East Timor (Auditor-General Audit Report No 38 – 2001-2)

Australian National Audit Office, Canberra, 2002

ISBN: 9642806209

Graphs, index; 127 pages.

Auditor-General Audit Report No 38- 2001-2 signed by Ian McPhee, Acting Auditor-General. Official federal government audit of a national event, in this case the deployment to East Timor between first lodgements and the date of this report. Includes INTERFET and UNTAET which involved 2, 3,4 and 5/7 RAR. Accessible at

ROSS, Ken – Regional security in the South Pacific: the Quarter century 1970-95

Australian National University, Canberra, 1993 

ISBN: 0731515978Diagrams, appendixes, bibliography, 220 pages.

Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Research School of Pacific Studies (Canberra Paper (CP) No.100)

The island states of the South Pacific constitute one of the world’s least important strategic regions which, during the Cold War, rarely rated international headlines and provoked little international interest. The political turmoil which most seriously affected them occurred during a two year period in the late 1980s. Then there were two coups in Fiji ,one of which saw a force from 1 RAR dispatched to the waters, but not deployed in a potential Services Protected Evacuation. Nationalists in New Caledonia resorted to and were targets of violence as they sought independence from France, and in Papua New Guinea an armed secessionist struggle started on Bougainville. This monograph’s three essays consider what lies behind the substantial stability and limited turbulence of the South Pacific island states’ recent past and why these states were so immune from the Cold War. The first essay examines what regional security means for the island states. The second essay outlines the significant events, developments and trends the island states of the South Pacific experienced during the 1970s, the 1980s and the early 1990s. The third essay concludes that in the mid-1990s strategic interest by external powers was likely to be minimal, but the internal politics of Fiji and Papua New Guinea and renewed pressure for independence in New Caledonia are likely to be major issues affecting the region’s security. These tenets proved to be correct with later deployments of RAR commander-led and supported deployments to several of these countries. Paper on line at

IRAQ 2003-09 and 2014–ongoing

Nil entry

AFGHANISTAN 2006-ongoing

Afghanistan Inquiry Report Plan

Department of Defence

Released on 30 Jul 21, this 36-page document heralded how the Government would progress this Inquiry (Brereton Report) into allegations of war atrocities in Afghanistan involving elements of the SOTG of which 2nd  Command Regiment Formerly 4 RAR (Cdo) was a part for some of the time involved. See report at

Inspector-General of the Australian Defence Forces Afghanistan Inquiry Report (Brereton)

Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2020

ISSN: 2207-6050 (print)

            22076069 (online)

References; 465 pages including introductions.

Also known as the Brereton Report official titled Questions of unlawful conduct concerning the Special Operations Task Group in Afghanistan by Major-General The Hon PLG Brereton AM, RFD, this is the redacted version released to the public. It mentions 4RAR (Commando) when referring to 2nd Commando Regiment. For the online version, see


RTF 2006: Afghanistan Pre-deployment Brief

Land Warfare Development Centre, Puckapunyal Vic, 2006


Maps, illustrations, 46 pages.

A Centre for Army Lessons publication in a series intended to prepare troops for deployment.  Contains material on the enemy threat, maps of Afghanistan, Uruzgan Province, Tactical Techniques and Practices (TTP) from Iraq as applicable to Afghanistan. This resource was seen and used by both RAR troops deploying to theatre as part of a Reconstruction Task Force (RTF), and many others in training.


(Civilian Humanitarian Disaster ops (incl Darwin 1975 and other cyclones and floods, overseas eg PNG, Indian Ocean, and lately, Border Operations, and DACC (non-disaster) eg Olympics and Commonwealth Games and other government support eg APEC, G20)

Nil entry



2020 Defence Strategic Update

Department of Defence, Canberra, 2020


Online core statement for the future direction of the ADF including Army which affects RAR units which must adapt training and other preparation to accord with this strategic direction. Accessible at


Anonymous – I’m an Australian soldier

Army Public Relations, Canberra, 2008


24 page coloured booklet.

Issued in 2008 as part of the ‘Hardened and Networked Army’ initiative, this booklet espouses the nine key virtues of the modern soldier. Many RAR individuals can be seen in the pages, the contents applying to all ranks of the Army in all units.

BEAUMONT, David – An uncertain and dangerous decade: Preparing the Army for the next ten years

Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2020

ISSN (online): TBA (not published yet)

ISSN (print): TBA (not published yet)

Endnotes; 67 pages.

An Australian Army Occasional Paper published by the Australian Army Research Centre. Australia is amid a health and economic crisis that it did not fully anticipate, after a bushfire emergency of such significance that wartime provisions for a military response were required The complexity of circumstances defies memory, with events of historic scale and significance. It has been a challenge for the Army, as part of the ADF, to respond to this confluence of problems. It is a reflection of the inherent difficulties in making choices and trade-offs about military capability, when it is made available, and for what reason. To prepare the Army for the next decade requires us to face the questions before it, to challenge the assumptions that have driven its planning in the past, and to avoid ‘freezing’ in the face of the monumental strategic changes witnessed. The RAR will be part of that as it has been in the past. Paper also available online at

BEVERIDGE, David W – LANDFORCE 2010: Some implications of technology for ADF future land force doctrine, leadership and structures

Australian National University, Canberra, 1992 

ISBN: 0731514777

Diagrams, appendixes, bibliography, 116 pages.

Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Research School of Pacific Studies (Canberra Paper (CP) No. 95)

This monograph examines developments in military technology of significance to the Australian Army, then considers their implications for ADF land force doctrine and leadership, and combat force structures, all of which had profound influence upon the RAR at the time, and indeed, since. Technological developments likely to lead to significant changes are examined and significant trends are identified, including the lethality of current and projected weapon systems, increased battlefield mobility and fluidity, and the potential for a fourth generation in warfare; promoting a doctrinal need for dispersed operations and ‘directive control’ as an operating norm. The demands of such operations under Australian conditions are seen to require increased combat soldier competence and leader ability, suggesting a need to restructure the present officer/NCO hierarchy and develop a less conventional land force. Paper on line at


BRADY, Scott, HANASZ, Paula and BIGLAND, Patrick – Aiding the Civil Authority: the potential for a broader Army role in domestic counter-terrorism

Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 20190

ISSN 2651-9666 (Online)

ISSN 2651-9658 (Print)

Illustrated, Endnotes; 78 pages.

An Australian Army Occasional Paper Developmental Series No 2 published by the Australian Army Research Centre. Addresses recent counter-terrosist events and projects possibilities for the ADF including the RAR for future similar deployments.  Paper also available online at

FIELD, Chris – Three Block Community Support: An Australian Defence Force Capability

Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2021

ISSN (online): 2653-0406

ISSN (print): 2653-0414

Illustrated, Endnotes; 78 pages.

Australian Army Occasional Paper No 1 published by the Australian Army Research Centre. During humanitarian and disaster relief responses, the ADF may be required to work on several different levels at once. In one moment in time, our ADF members support communities, volunteers, emergency responders and their leaders. In the next moment, they provide teams for evacuation, clean-up, clearance and repair tasks. Finally, they utilise their core skills, such as sea, land and air mobility, logistics, communications, medical and engineering—all on the same day and all within spaces as small as three city blocks. This can be described as ‘three block community support’. RARs have in the past and will in the future, deploy on such Defence Force Aid to the Civilian Community tasks. Paper also available online at

Kudu Operation in Ukraine

YouTube, 2023

Video, 4mins 51 secs

A media broadcast of the Australian commitment, based on 5 RAR, to provide 70 initial trainers to contribute to a larger British training effort to support the Ukrainian armed forces. These training teams will deploy for several months. While the title says ‘in Ukraine’ Australian troops will not deploy to that country to conduct that training. Accessible at

MANASZ, Paula and BRADY, Scott – Environmental peacekeeping in the Pacific

Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2021

ISSN (online): 2653-0406

ISSN (print): 2653-0414

Illustrated, Endnotes; 78 pages.

Australian Army Occasional Paper No 4 published by the Australian Army Research Centre. Understanding that the potential for conflict in our region is caused or exacerbated by environmental factors may help the ADF understand the potential for peace. This monograph applies the environmental peacebuilding lens to conflicts and collective action problems facing the south-west Pacific region, namely the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, PNG, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Many of these the ADF (and RAR) have already deployed, and may do again in the future. The paper explores security challenges arising from the governance of natural resources and the environment, and opportunities for environmental peacebuilding. Paper also available online at

NEADS, Alex, GALBREATH David J and FARRELL, Theo – From Tools to Teammates: Human-Machine Teaming and the Future of Command and Control in the Australian Army

Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2021

ISSN (online): 2653-0406

ISSN (print): 2653-0414

Illustrated, Endnotes; 75 pages.

Australian Army Occasional Paper No 7 published by the Australian Army Research Centre. In 2018, the Australian Army launched its Robotic and Autonomous Systems Strategy to capitalise on the military opportunities presented by the ‘fourth industrial revolution’ in artificial intelligence and machine learning software. The key to realising this potential lies in the effective integration of soldiers and autonomous systems, known as human-machine teaming through which automation is predicted to radically reshape the conduct of war, with substantial implications for the future of command and control. However, such visions depend not just on the technical capabilities of new autonomous systems, but also on the choices soldiers make about how to use them. This paper explores the compatibility of emerging concepts of human-machine teaming with existing Australian Army culture and practices, drawing on interviews with serving officers and focusing specifically on the implications for military command and control. The paper assesses the risks and opportunities arising from automation for future concepts, doctrine development and organisational change. RAR are bound to be affected. Paper also available online at

PALAZZO, Albert – Planning not to lose: the Australian Army’s new philosophy of war

Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 2021

ISSN (online): 2653-0406

ISSN (print): 2653-0414

Illustrated, Endnotes; 58 pages.

Australian Army Occasional Paper No 3 published by the Australian Army Research Centre . Addresses the future pathway to better outcomes. Many informants to this paper and most definitely affected by its contents as RAR members and units. Paper also available online at

PALAZZO, Albert – The future of war debate

Land Warfare Studies Centre, Canberra, 2012

ISSN: 1441-0389

References; 37 pages.

LWSC Paper 40. A futurist-oriented paper that refers to precedent direction, including some written by ex-RAR members who are cited, on the development of warfare within which land operations will continue to involve RAR. It invites greater debate to help develop the Army to be ready to fight the next war rather than the last one. Accessible at

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